The "Parco Urbano delle Mura" spreads out along the ridges separating Val Polcevera from Val Bisagno on the hills behind Genoa, it is 876 hectares wide and can be considered the largest green "lung" of the town. The view stretches from the hill of Portofino until Capo Noli, from the Sanctuary Madonna della Guardia to Monte Antola and to the Forts in Val Bisagno. The Walls of the XVII century, shaped as a V opened to the sea, enclosed the whole town. The fortresses: Forte Diamante, i due Fratelli, Puin, Sperone, Begato, Castellaccio, Tenaglia, Crocetta - built between the XVIII century and the XIX century, were one of the widest defence systems of Europe.
On the west bank of the River Bisagno you can see the eastern forts of Genoa. The "Parco Urbano dei Forti" spreads along a horseshoe shaped crest, from the edge of the town it stretches itself through wild and vast moors, hills and meadows. The park provides the possibility of excursions great historic and wildlife interest. Forte Quezzi, Forte Ratti, Forte Richelieu, Forte Santa Tecla , were projected already in the mid - XVIII century and were completed in the first decades of the XIX century. They overlook extremely nice panoramas, often covered in thick woods. On a higher central position at 560 m above the sea level, Forte Ratti, 220 m long, is the "donjon" of the whole defence system of the town.
The Fort played a key role in the Genoese fortified defence system of the XIX century. It lies at the top of the "New Walls" of 1630, that, still today, look like towering bulwarks on the hills behind the town centre. Its architecture is very mixed, as giving evidence of a prolonged time of construction, which covered more than one hundred years; many engineers were committed to its building, at the beginning Genoese and French military engineers and then, after 1815, the savoy Engineer Corps. The main entrance, bearing the savoy coat of arms. has a ditch and a heavy door, once connected to the drawbridge by two chains; other interesting architectural features are its powder-magazine -still very well kept- n the southern wing of the Fort, the central barracks with wide rooms and the nice chapel annexed to the complex.
The Fort adjoins the northern "sperone" (buttress) of the Walls of the XVII century, from here you can enjoy a gorgeous panorama on the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno; and from the South a dramatic view on the Gulf of Genoa. Since 1984, in the summer, many plays have been performed in the Fort, where also other artistic events and entertaining shows usually take place. During the siege of Genoa, in april 1800, Fort Sperone (considered by General Massena the turning point in the strategic defence system of the town) was the site of many harsh fightings. After two centuries the "theatre" of many sanguinary battles has turned into the "scene" of nice artistic and joyful performances.
The fort dates back to the XIII century as derives from the Chronicles on the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, and it was completely restored in the XIX century. Inside the boundary of the walls of the fortress there is also the Torre della Specola - of the XIX century (1817/20) - with its peculiar polygonal shape and red bricks used as building material. A loud gunshot was fired from the tower every day at 12 sharp until the eve of World war II. The tower is the site of a Weather Observatory of the Hydrographic Institute.
The powerful fortress, with angular ramparts and propped up by a wide earthwork, was built between 1819 and 1823 by the Savoy Engineer Corps. It could host 840 soldiers and its powder-magazine could store 41000 kg of munitions, there was also a warehouse 1500 square metres wide. It was restored between the end of the XX century and the beginning of the XXI century with EU funds.
The fort also known as the "bastia di Promontorio" (the hill fortification) is at 216 m above the sea level, already present in the XVI century it was restored in the XIX century in ordere to make it self-sufficient, transforming it into some barracks. The building still has its original drawbridge.
The Tower was built by the Sardinian Engineer Corps after Genoa was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia, it shows the characteristic use of bricks as building material and it has huge drains, it overlooks Val Bisagno and it is not far from the route of the city boundary of the "New Walls".
It is one of the best kept forts among those forming the defence system of Genoa in the XIX century. It was built around 1828 by the Savoy Engineer Corps where, in April 1800, there was the sanguinary battle between the French army commanded General Massena and the Austrian army commanded by Count Hoenzollern. The fort lies on a very panoramic spot overlooking all "Parco delle Mura"; for this reason the Town Council has decided to use it as a centre to sight fires. Forte Puin is also a refuge and is often a well known meeting point and provides a nice place for a stop for tourists and school groups.
It is on the top of Monte Spino, at about 600 m, in an important strategic and panoramic position. Its building was started in 1747 and completed in 1832. It is on the line of many tours that from the middle of the Parco delle Mura lead to the districts of Begato and Geminiano, old agricultural centres. In this area - once defended also by Forte Fratello Maggiore now lost - violent battles were fought during the siege of Genoa (1800) and, among the so many casualties of a battle, there was also the poet Ugo Foscolo.
It is one of the most characteristic forts inside the defence city walls of Genoa. It was built in 1758 on the top of Monte Diamante, at about 667 m. Its position overlooking Val Polcevera and Val Bisagno as well its distance from the town centre, made the fort the first defensive bulwark of the town against raids from the North.
It was built in Napoleonic times, 157 m, where once there was a nunnery, it was rebuilt by the Sardinian Engineer Corps in 1830. It still has its original drawbridge.
It was built between 1815 and 1837, at 114 m, in an area already fortified near the Sanctuary of Belvedere.
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